Dictionary of Terms

AspectPositioning in a specific direction, in wine terms the direction a vineyard faces
BiodynamicUtilization of only natural materials (ie: compost) and processes to farm a vineyard, total avoidance of chemicals
BrixScale of measurement for the amount of sugar in grape juice pre-fermentation, impacts alcohol levels (ABV)
ClarityReferences particles in wine which can cause cloudy or hazy appearance versus being clear
CloningGenetically copying a grapevine’s DNA by attaching a cutting of one grapevine and grafting (attaching) it to another varietal’s rootstock
FaultsOne of many forms of spoilage which can occur in wine
FermentationProcess where yeast turns sugars in grape juice into alcohol and carbon dioxide (CO2)
Green HarvestRemoving excess grape bunches from a grape vine to allow the remaining bunches better ripening conditions and flavor concentration
LeesDead yeast cells remaining after fermentation which can add yeasty, bread-like flavors to the wine through extended exposure
Malolactic Fermentation (MLF)The impact of a specific bacteria on fermented wine which converts malic acid to lactic acid and softens the wine. White wines can take on creamy, buttery flavors while the impact is not detectable as a flavor in red wine
MacroclimateLarge geographical region with similar climate
MesoclimateLarger than a microclimate, typically referring to a vineyard or area with a common climate
MicroclimateA very small area which has a different climate than its surroundings
New WorldWine regions outside of Europe and certain Middle East countries
Old WorldThe wine regions in Europe and other countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea (N. Africa and Middle East)
OrganicWines made from grapes grown under specific regulations (typically by country) to be classified as organic
OxidationWhen exposed to air, chemical process in wine take place changing the wine’s flavor and aroma (white wine = bruised apples, red wine = nail polish)
PhotosynthesisProcess where plants convert sunlight to energy or food containing carbon dioxide and water
PhylloxeraTiny louse which attacks a grape vine’s roots ultimately killing the vine. Vitis Vinifera varietals are highly susceptible while many U.S. originating varietals are inherently immune
RootstockRefers to grape vines which are grafted onto the root of a different varietal
VarietalsThe specific type of primary grape used in wine making